Tiananmen protest leader Wuer Kaixi escaped from China dramatically via a clandestine network called Operation Yellowbird, hastily cobbled together after the June 1989 by human-rights advocates, business executives, Hong Kong celebrities, Western diplomats, spooks, professional people smugglers and Chinese mob bosses. Wuer was smuggled out of Beijing after the June 1989 crackdown, finding refuge in hospitals, temples, dingy safe houses, and the suffocating trunk of a friend's car. When he reached southern China, his face had been publicized on state media as one of the top “most wanted subversives” in China, and martial-law troops were swarming around the border posts. One of his contacts ventured into Hong Kong looking for help. Local activists, wary of a Chinese trap, didn't trust the intermediary—until he showed them a Polaroid photo of Wuer holding the same day's paper with a message scrawled on it: PLEASE SEND HELP. Wuer was spirited out of China to France. He later learned an underworld figure had contributed $13,000 to help bankroll his escape.