21ST-CENTURY ACTIVISM

04.10.13

From Pakistan to Syria, Young Women and Girls Demand Change

How young women and girls in the developing world are using education and technology to demand change and create hope in their lives.

Humaira Bachal was just a teenager when she looked around her impoverished Karachi neighborhood at the children roaming the barren streets, and realized that she and her sister were the only ones who were going to school. Bachal’s mother was making sure her daughters got an education, against her father’s wishes. When her father discovered she was going to take a high school entrance exam, he beat her mother. He also beat her. She took the exam anyway. And then, determined to improve the shameful number of girls completing a primary education in Pakistan—only 59 percentBachal she started teaching a handful of local children in her home.

A decade later, Bachal was sitting on stage in an ornate theater at Lincoln Center in New York, talking about the 1,200-student school she runs in a gang-ridden part of Karachi through the Dream Foundation Trust, which she created and runs. Bachal “doesn’t take any nonsense. And the [local] men respect that,” says documentarian Sharmeen Obaid Chinoy (CEO, SOC Films), who made a movie featuring the Pakistani activist and who was also on stage for the fourth annual Women in the World Summit, hosted by Newsweek and The Daily Beast. Along with her fellow Pakistani panelist Khalida Brohi (founder and director, Sughar Women’s Program) and of course Malala Yousafzai, all of whom began their education activism as teenagers, Bachal represented a major thread woven through the 2013 summit: the promise of the rising generation of young women activists, entrepreneurs, and leaders.

Call it the girls-who-change-the-world summit. Of course there were many veteran activists among the featured delegates, but there was also a sense that the current crop of tech-savvy young women may be able to change women’s education and labor-force participation even more quickly and decisively than their immediate predecessors. As Hillary Clinton put it in her summit address, “Much of our advocacy is a top-down frame. It’s past time to embrace a 21st-century approach to advancing the opportunities of women and girls” by empowering youthful, grassroots leaders.

Education

While Bachal and Brohi spoke directly about the value of educating a new generation of young Pakistani women, they were not alone in emphasizing how pivotal gains in education are going to be for women in the developing world. Oprah Winfrey interviewed Dr. Tererai Trent, founder of the Tinogona Foundation, who was married off at 11 in her Zimbabwe village, brought her family to America, and managed to get a Ph.D. while handling five kids and an abusive husband in the confines of a small Oklahoma trailer. Only then did she return to Zimbabwe to improve educational opportunities for rural children.

There is worldwide work that needs to be done on this front. Some 250 million children of primary-school age—about 38 percent—cannot read or count, and the majority of these children are girls. Even in countries where they have reached gender parity at the national level, there are still massive gender gaps in education among the poor and ethnic minorities, the World Bank notes. According to their statistics, two thirds of unschooled girls around the world are part of ethnic minority groups in their home country. In India and Pakistan, the richest boys and girls are educated equally, while the poorest 20 percent of boys get five more years of education than girls do. The global economy will benefit greatly from the education of these typically disenfranchised women. Former U.S. ambassador for global women’s issues Melanne Verveer pointed out that “women are the third emerging economy in the world, after China and India,” worth trillions of dollars. But those estimates rely on women participating in the market—something that happens with far more frequency when they are educated. In Latin America, the increased levels of education among girls accounts for 42 percent of the growth in the female labor force since 1975.

In India and Pakistan, the poorest 20 percent of boys get five more years of education than girls do.”

Technology

Though women are rocking education in the United States—they now get the majority of both college and graduate degrees—they are sorely underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, known in the jargon as STEM. In fact, they’ve lost ground in the past decade. As the summit’s “Grooming Titans of Tech” panel moderator Chelsea Clinton pointed out, the number of female computer science majors has dropped from 20 to 12 percent in the past decade. Reshma Saujani, the founder of the organization Girls Who Code, a nonprofit that teaches underprivileged teens how to code in computer science languages, is looking to change those dreadful numbers. Saujani bragged to the WITW audience about how evangelical her first group of graduates is: they teach their friends what they learn in their coding classes.

While throughout the world, very young women are lagging behind men in tech fields, they are making enormous contributions through grassroots social-media activism. This is a huge shift from previous generations, when the face of most revolutionary movements was male. The Internet is a democratizing force, allowing female activists to have their voices heard. Though Internet use in emerging markets is difficult to track, the marketing research firm eMarketer predicts that by 2014, 1.8 billion people will use social networking, with the fastest growth coming from the Middle East and Africa. By using this technology, women can have a voice in patriarchal societies where demonstrating publicly can lead to sexual violence and even death.

Twenty-three-year-old Alaa Murabit, a Libyan activist and medical student who spoke to 60 Minutes’s Lesley Stahl at WITW, followed just this path. With her NGO—The Voice of Libyan Women—which advocates for women’s economic empowerment and against domestic violence, she reaches Libyan women through the organization’s website, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube presence.

Leadership

Part of what Murabit seeks to accomplish with The Voice of Libyan Women is to make sure that women get a seat at the table when her country redrafts its Constitution, a process that is in its very early stages. Getting young women more involved in political leadership isn’t just a problem in postrevolutionary countries. It’s an issue everywhere. There is only one country in the world that has a majority female legislative body—Rwanda. A small handful of nations has near gender parity in their elected leaders, but most of the world languishes far behind, including the United States (where representation in both the House and Senate hovers around 20 percent).

Similar progress is needed in private sector leadership as well. Less than 5 percent of Fortune 500 companies are run by women. It will take time to raise those kinds of numbers. But there’s one thing young women will need to get there, and it’s a quality that young Humaira Bachal and all the other millennials at the Women in the World summit shared: the confidence to “not take any nonsense.” As these young women are discovering, just because a door is closed doesn’t mean you can’t open it yourself.