Two months after the end of the war in Europe, the war in the Pacific still dragged on. On August 6, 1945, President Truman—fearful of a ground invasion of Japan—authorized the first-ever use of an atomic weapon on the city of Hiroshima. The device was said to be 2,000 times more powerful than the largest bomb used to date. The bomb, known as “Little Boy,” contained the equivalent of 12 and 15,000 tons of TNT and devastated an area of five square miles, destroying more than 60 percent of the buildings in the area. The Japanese later estimated 118,000 people died as a result, but some figures have placed the dead as high as 140,000 out of a pre-bomb population of 350,000 in Hiroshima. “From the mound, Mr. Tanimoto saw an astonishing panorama,” wrote John Hershey in Hiroshima. “Not just a patch of koi, as he had expected, but as much of Hiroshima as he could see through the clouded air was giving off a thick, dreadful miasma.” But the assault was not over: Three days later, the U.S. dropped another, larger atomic bomb on Nagasaki, weighing nearly 9,000 pounds—killing 74,000. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union made a unilateral declaration of war on August 8. The events were too much for Japan, with Japan surrendering to the Allies on August 14.