By Billy Brown for Life by DailyBurn
Can you get lean eating cheeseburgers? The IIFYM (If It Fits Your Macros) diet is open to the idea.
Most diets and meal plans are meticulous with what types of food you can and can’t eat, how much you can have, and even when you consume it. For some, the excessive restrictions associated with most diets are a recipe for failure.
The IIFYM diet goes in the opposite direction by focusing on the largest food groups: protein, carbohydrates and fat. How it works: Calculate your daily caloric needs, then split those calories into 40 percent carbohydrates, 40 percent protein and 20 percent fat, the ratio that IIFYM proponents say is the most effective for muscle growth, fat burning and consistent energy levels.
Keep in mind, there has been some debate on whether or not this diet is in fact more or less effective than “eating clean,” and if a calorie is a calorie regardless of the macro composition of the diet you’re following. However, some studies support it and numerous individuals have reported success with this diet. If you think IIFYM could work for you and want to try it, here’s how.
The first step in the IIFYM plan is to figure out how much you need of each macronutrient daily. The Harris-Benedict equation for figuring out your basal metabolic rate.
(BMR) for women is:
665 + ( 4.35 x weight in pounds ) + ( 4.7 x height in inches ) – ( 4.7 x age in years )
BMR for men is:
65 + (6.2 x weight in pounds) + (12.7 x height in inches) – (6.8 x age in years)
So, for example, a 33-year-old, 185-pound man who is 5’ 6” tall would need about 1,852 calories.
65 + (6.2 x 185 = 1,147) + (12.7 x 68= 864) – (6.8 x 33 = 224) = 1,852
Next, you have to take into account how active you are. Leslie Bonci, MPH, RD, CSSD, LDN, Director of Sports Nutrition at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, points out that adding calories based on activity level is a guesstimate and not a precise science. That said, there are general ranges she recommends using for men and women:
Lightly Active = BMR x 1.3-1.4
Moderately Active = BMR x 1.5-1.6
Very Active = BMR x 1.7-1.8
Add in calories for your activity levels, and then divide those calories into 40 percent carbohydrates, 40 percent protein and 20 percent fat. Remember that you want every meal to fit this 40/40/20 set-up. If it fits into your macro ratio, you can feel free to eat it.
Everything from chicken breasts to pizza can be “diet-friendly” if it hits your macros. Sound too good to be true? We asked Bonci to further explain IIFYM and why it can work.
Personalizing the IIFYM Diet
“As a starting point, it is always a good idea to log what you’re eating, then analyze it according to a program and see what would need to change for you to eat in a 40/40/20 way,” says Bonci. This way you can tell if drastic differences will need to take place, or if you’re already close to the ratio, which is a good jumping off point.
Find yourself far from the 40/40/20 ideal? Consider a 150-pound, 5’9” male who exercises five times a week as an example.
“He might need 2,550 calories to maintain weight [based on BMR and activity level calculations above] for the amount of exercise he does,” says Bonci. Here’s how he’d break that down in order to eat according to IIFYM.
To figure out his carbohydrate needs, he’d apply the following calculation:
2,550 (total calories) x .40 (percentage of calories from carbohydrates) = 1,020
A gram of carbohydrates is about four calories, so divide the calories by four and you get 255 grams of carbs. That’s how many he’d need every day.
In theory, IIFYM doesn’t care if you get those carbohydrates from sweet potatoes or ice cream. As long as it’s within your ratio, you’re good to go. In practice, you’ll likely work out harder and better with a belly full of spinach, though, rather than you will if you’re loaded up with buffalo mac and cheese.
Also, keep in mind that endurance athletes will need to adjust their carbohydrate levels accordingly. “For someone exercising five days a week I would probably recommend a daily carb intake of three grams per pound or closer to 450 grams of carbohydrates a day,” she says.
“The more activity one does, the higher the carbohydrate requirements will be. But there is something to be said for being selective,” says Bonci. “Going for whole grains and higher fiber carbs will help you get the most nutritional value.”
Protein will have the same calculation as cabs:
2,550 (total calories) x .40 (percentage of calories from protein) = 1,020
Again, every gram of protein is approximately four calories, so divide the protein calories by four and you get 255 grams. This can be consumed as lean turkey or chicken breast, but if you’re going to put down some double cheeseburgers, be sure to factor in the amount of fat from the red meat and the carbohydrates from the bun as well.
Bonci has some personal reservations on IIFYM’s protein recommendations. “I should note that the maximum recommended amount of daily protein intake according to the Dietary Reference Intake data from the USDA is 0.9 to one gram per pound bodyweight,” says Bonci. “This comes out to be 135 to 150 grams of protein a day for this 150-pound man, so we have the potential for a protein overload if he’s aiming for the suggested 225 grams suggested above.”
The calculation goes through a slight adjustment for fat:
2,550 (total calories) x .20 (percentage of calories from fat) = 510 calories
Since each gram of fat equals about nine calories, that amounts to about 46 grams of fat every day, which, according to Bonci, might be low for some athletes. “Fat guidelines actually range from 10 to 35 percent of daily calories and 20 percent fat may not be appropriate or adequate for all,” she says. “If one does primarily endurance exercise, the body uses fat as an energy source, so needs are higher.”
The beauty of IIFYM is the flexibility — you can adjust the ratios to fit your caloric needs and you can choose from any food to fill those needs. As an athlete, you’ll likely stick with complex carbs, lean protein and healthy fats, but IIFYM won’t put you on a guilt trip for the occasional pizza dinner or fried chicken lunch.
Want to try the IIFYM Diet? Check out DailyBurn’s Live to Fail program which incorporates a similar nutrition plan.