Gun laws enacted in Colorado in the wake of the Aurora movie theater shooting and the Sandy Hook massacre were upheld by a federal judge on Thursday. The laws, which were passed in 2013 by a Democratic-controlled legislature, banned ammunition magazines with more than 15 rounds and introduced universal background checks for all private gun sales and transfers. After the laws passed, political opposition, notably from Colorado's elected sheriffs, led to recalls of two Democrats. However, U.S. District Chief Judge Marcia Krieger ruled that no evidence showed limiting magazine rounds lessened the ability to defend oneself. “Of the many law enforcement officials called to testify, none were able to identify a single instance in which they were involved where a single civilian fired more than 15 shots in self defense,” she said in her ruling.