Their opponents bombed their lawyer’s house and extinguished cigarettes on their skin, but nonviolent protest prevailed in an often overlooked chapter of the Civil Rights story.
C.T. Vivian is the author of It's in the Action, written with Steve Fiffer. He was born in Missouri in 1924 and lived twenty-four years in Illinois before moving to Nashville, where he earned a degree in theology and joined John Lewis, Diane Nash, and others to integrate the city in 1960. After being imprisoned and beaten during the Freedom Rides, he joined Dr. King at the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta and played leading roles in integration and voting rights campaigns in Birmingham, St. Augustine, and Selma. In 2013, President Barack Obama awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Vivian. He died in Atlanta on July 17, 2020.
Steve Fiffer is the author of more than a dozen nonfiction books, including Jimmie Lee and James. and collaborations with Southern Poverty Law Center founder Morris Dees and former U.S. Secretary of State James A. Baker III.