The last bastion of the war in Iraq is in the northern city of Mosul, where a volatile combination of insurgent groups and religious diversity has created an environment difficult to reign in. Troops arriving at the city are shocked to see how out of control the city remains. "I certainly didn't know that there was a place as kinetic as west Mosul that still existed in Iraq right now, but it does," one commander told Time. Al-Qaeda, Saddam loyalists holed up in nearby Syria, a powerful minority Kurdish population, and a lack of basic services make for an ideal recruiting ground for insurgent groups. Most importantly, locals in Mosul have yet to turn against the insurgents out of fear for the consequences.