In the Deir Ezzor province of eastern Syria, a handful of possible polio cases are being investigated by the World Health Organization. If the cases turn out to be polio, they will be the first since 1999, and yet another sad reality of the war-torn country. Syria, with what was once one of the best health systems in the region, had one of the highest polio vaccination rates in the Middle East. Now, the success of that program faces challenges along with the rest of the country. Of the 296 reported cases of polio worldwide this year, roughly half have been in Somalia.